Inside the fortified walls, in the north-western corner of the town, there was a castle, which in contrast to the High Castle, situated on the Princely Hill, was called the Low Castle. It was the residence of the royal headman. The castle also housed the municipal office which took care of the «urban acts». The inner or high defence wail stretched along present-day Pidvalna, Komsomolska-Street, Lenin Aveune and Lesya Ukrainka Street. Along its perimeter it was surmounted by defence towers. In 1404 a tower was built upon the Krakivsky gate and in 1431 —upon the Halitsky gate. By 1445 there were eighteen towers, each placed in the care of a certain guild.
The outer or low wall which had 16 towers — semicircular stone buildings to protect the approaches by fire — shielded the town on three sides — the northern, eastern, and southern, that is, from the Krakivsky to Halitsky gate. Two basteas of the wall are still preserved. One of them, 32 Komsomolska Street, was opened in 1906, the second in Pidvalna Street in 1977 when the monument to Ivan Fedorov was under construction. Simultaneously a fragment of the inner (high) wall with a stone mason tower and a part of the outer (low) wall were discovered and conserved.
In the first half of the 17th century for the convenience of pedestrians two wicket-gates were cut through the wall — the Jesuit wicket near the Jesuit church and the Bosatsky wicket in front of the church of Assumption which formed a passage througt the newly unearthed basteas of the low wall to the church of the bare-footed Carmelites.
The basic principle of the Lviv fortifications took shape in the 15th c. Later they were only repaired and improved. The town fortifications survived till the second half of the 18th century. In 1777, when no longer of any use for defence, they were taken to pieces and new streets and lawns appeared on their site.
Lviv keeps intact the planning structure of the central park, the planning being typical of the Middle Ages. Within the fortification walls the buildings are hardly modified, if at all. Not only the network of streets with the central market square completed by the end of the 14th century, but the planning structure of the houses are preserved. In Rynok Square and the adjacent streets the house premises are projected inside and have a trinominal composition: the main house, the yard, and the back h^use.
In the 14th century the town was built mostly of wood. After the conflagration of 1331 up to the early 16th century houses were built by method of the Prussian wall, that is, a frame structure filled in with clay or brick. Stone was used only for cult buildings. It was churches that gave the Gothis air to the Lviv of that period. The Gothis Lviv endures only in the Latin Cathedral and some minor fragments of the dwelling houses in Rynok Square and the adjacent streets.
The Latin Cathedral was erected in 1360. Its first architect was Peter Stetcher. As was the case in those times it took a long time to build — it was finished in 1481.

 

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